انجمن مجازی آموزش پزشکی
مدیر وبلاگ : kasra kowsar
در این پست می خوام شما رو با یکی از روش های نوین آموزشی در دنیای علوم پزشکی آشنا کنم.بهش می گن روشpbl.مخففproblem based kearningاست که به معنای آموزش مبتنی بر مسئله است.این روش در دانشگاه منچستر مورد اسنفاده قرار گرفته است.ما هم در دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شاهرود بعضی از دروس را با این شیوه می خونیمودرسته که اول کارش است.وهنوز در اجرای اون دچار خیلی اشتباهاتیم اما اجرای درست اون یک گام برای رسیدن به آموزش های نوین در اروپاست.در این شیوه استاد یک مسئله رو طراحی می کنه.و دانشجویان به صورت های مختف مثل بحث گروهی دیدن کتاب های مرجع پرسش و پاسخ و .....اونو حل می کنند.مسئله طرح شده معمولا کلی است.و در طی حل اون یادگیری اتفاق می افتد.در ادامه مطلب توضیحات Wikipediaرو در این زمینه می خونید
Problem-based learning (PBL)
Problem-based learning is a principle based on the educational philosophy of the French educationalist Célestin Freinet in the 1920s., and is used in many subject areas, not just medicine. It has been developed in relation to medical education at McMaster University, and Maastrict University, and subsequently by the School of Medicine, University of Manchester who introduced the system to the UK. It refers to a whole process, and not merely to a specific event (the PBL tutorial).
In the UK, the focus is on a PBL-tutorial which is conducted in small groups of around 8-10 students (although this varies with seniority and between medical school) with a tutor (or facilitator) who usually comes from either a clinical or academic background, depending on the level of the course. There is an academic, clinical or ethical scenario, where the students select which areas of study to pursue in their own time. Academics at Maastrict University developed seven steps of what should happen in the PBL process:
1. The group read the scenario and clarify terms they do not understand
2. They define what the problem is
3. They brainstorm possible hypotheses or explanations
4. Come up with a possible solution
5. Define a series of learning objectives they should achieve by the next tutorial, arising out of the problem
6. Gather information to fulfil the learning objectives - this can be in the form of private study or reading; attending a lecture; having a discussion or teaching session with a relevant "expert"; attend a ward round or clinic; interview a relevant patient
7. At the next tutorial, students share the information they have gathered since the last tutorial, and discuss areas where information they have gained conflicts - this may lead to further learning objectives if they find they are still not clear
In keeping with the ethos of self directed learning, during sessions it encourages a shift in power from an academic tutor to the students in a PBL group. However, it will be seen that lectures, tutorials and clinical teaching sessions can play a part in problem-based learning - but the emphasis is on the student to decide how these will enable them to fulfil their learning objectives, rather than passively absorb all information.
The introduction of PBL in the UK coincided with a General Medical Council report, Tomorrow's Doctors , which recommended an increased proportion of learning should be student-centred and self-directed. This encouraged medical schools to adopt PBL, however some medical schools have adopted other methods to increase self-directed learning, whilst others (notably Oxford and Cambridge) have always had a high proportion of student-centred and self-directed learning, and have therefore not introduced PBL. Manchester Medical School adopted a new PBL curriculum in 1994, and were followed by Liverpool Medical School and Glasgow Medical School. Some of the UK medical schools created since that time have adopted problem based learning, although Brighton and Sussex Medical School which, although one of the newest medical schools in the UK, has a lecture-based approach supported by small-group and self-directed work.
Tomorrow's Doctors  also criticised the amount of unnecessary scientific knowledge irrelevant to clinical practice that medical students were required to learn, meaning that the curricula were altered in other ways around the same time that PBL was introduced in the UK. One study criticising problem-based learning found that some medical specialist registrars and consultants believe that PBL can promote incomplete learning and educational blind spots; particularly in anatomy  and basic medical sciences, due to ultimate decision making within the PBL group resting with the students. This has also brought into question whether the lack of anatomical knowledge adequately prepares graduates for surgery, or negatively affects enthusiasm to enter certain specialties; including academic medicine, surgery, pathology and microbiology., although the purposeful reduction in anatomy teaching within all medical curricula which occurred following Tomorrow's Doctors  may be in part to blame for reduced anatomical knowledge, rather than it being due to PBL.
Studies have shown that students believe that PBL increases the educational effect of self study and their clinical inference ability, and although studies are conflicting, one showed that UK PRHO graduates believed that they were better at dealing with uncertainty and knowing their personal limits. Students feel less detached from clinical medicine through PBL and thus this may increase their enthusiasm for learning.
that pioneered successful Problem-based-learning such as University of Montreal
or McMaster are themselves prestigious institutions that hold worldwide
reputations for clinical and academic excellence, taking the top few percent of
worldwide graduate applicants. PBL can be considered to be more suitable to
teaching of graduate medicine, whose students may benefit from the maturity of
an existing degree and previous experience of self directed learning, and
perhaps unsuitable for less able students and undergraduates
نوع مطلب : روش های آموزش،
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